The Project Agreement between International Development Association and Government of Maharashtra required that the State shall establish the Groundwater Agency, especially for the development of minor irrigation schemes based on groundwater. As per the agreement, the State Government has established the Groundwater Surveys & Development Agency ( G.S.D.A. ) during the year 1972.
The G.S.D.A. is engaged, in the exploration, development and augmentation of groundwater resources in the State through various schemes. This mainly includes, drilling of bore wells/tube wells under Rural Water Supply Programme, rendering technical guidance under minor irrigation programme by locating suitable dug well sites, strengthening of groundwater sources by water conservation measures, artificial recharge projects for induced groundwater, specific studies related to the periodic status of groundwater availability, protecting the existing groundwater resources through technical assistance under Groundwater Act etc.
Water plays an important role for the existence of mankind. The demand for water is rapidly increasing for drinking, irrigation and industrial uses. The increasing demand is also related to the increase in the population.
In India, Deccan Trap basaltic rock occupies about 500,000 Km2 area predominantly in Maharashtra and spreads to Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. It is also encountered in boreholes in West Rajasthan. Basaltic flows are off both vesicular and non-vesicular types, massive, horizontal in disposition with a low dip in some areas. The jointing/fracturing patterns and dyke intrusions control groundwater movement, dimension and intensity.
Large geographical area of Maharashtra State is occupied by hard rock. The hard rocks (Basalt + Metamorphic) occurs in the State covering an area of about 91%, put certain limitations o the availability and development of groundwater due to their adverse hydrogeological configuration.
About 1/3rd of the geographical area of the State comes under rain shadow and DPAP area which receives scanty rainfall and due to uneven distribution in space and time often brings a difficult situation of drought. The peculiar physiographic configuration of Maharashtra State, its undulating rugged topography also play an important role in controlling the occurrence and movement of groundwater. The secondary porosity developed as a result of weathering and structural features like joints/ fractures are the main components on which groundwater availability depends. In some of the areas, lineament and Dyke are also controlling factors. In basaltic rock, groundwater occurs under confined and semi-confined conditions. The shallow aquifer gets periodically recharged as evident from pre and post monsoon water level fluctuation.