Introduction:Till 1801, Sangli was included in Miraj Jahagir. The First Chintamanrao Appasaheb Patwardhan established a different principality with Sangli as the Capital city. An interesting fact was that in 1768, Haripur a nearby village was bigger than Sangli having population of 2000, whereas Sangli had population of 1000 only.
We do not find any direct references of Sangli before 1801. Historical references since 1024 show areas called Mirinch i.e presently Miraj and Karhatak i.e. Karad under the areas rules by Gonk, a Shilahar King and Sangli was included in these areas. The first clear and direct reference to Sangli can be found in the Sanskrit poem Shiv-Bharat. During the time of Shivaji Maharaj, his courageous Sarnoubat Netaji Palkar captured Sangli, Miraj and Brahmnal from the Adilshah in 1659. In the times of Peshwas, Indroji Kadam and later Sardar Patwardhan became the 'Jahagirdar' of this region.
There are several interesting stories as to how the name Sangli originated. One of them is that, there were six (6) Gallies i.e. lanes on the bank of the Krishna River hence the name "SANGLI". The second one is that the name of the village was Sangalki in Kannada language so in Marathi it became SANGLI. Another belief is that the confluence of Warna and Krishna rivers is near Sangli village. The word for confluence in Marathi is 'Sangam' and the SANGLI is the distorted version of the word Sangam.
The Sangli district in one of the Southern most district of the state. The district is bounded by 16o 43 ’’ and 17 o 38’’ northern latitude and 73 o 41’’ and 75 o 41’’ east longitude. The district area falls in Survey of India degree sheet no. 47G,H, I,J,K and L and falls color Satellite imagery of path 28, 29 and row 56, 57 of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite-A. The geographical area of the district is 8610sq.km. with East-West length 205 km and North-South width is about 96km.
The district experiences a tropical wet-dry climate characterized by alternating wet and dry spells. The district receives rainfall during South-West monsoon from June to September. The distribution of rainfall is not even all over the district. The Western part of the district, in Shirala and Walwa taluka area receives heavy rainfall (above 1200mm). While the eastern part of the district comes under rain shadow zone. Out of 8610 sq km area of the district about 5684 sq km area fall in a DPAP. In DPAP area receives rainfall between 500mm to 600mm. The annual rainfall received in district ranges from 528.2mm to 1225.8mm with 692.4mm average. It has been observed that about 20% rainfall is received during post-monsoon and by thunder showers in the month of May. The temperature may rise up to 42OC in summer and may fall down to 8OC during winter. The climate in the western part of the district especially in Shirala taluka is pleasant.
Major part of the district is drained by Krishna river and its tributaries namely Warna, Morna, Yerala and Agrani rivers. The parts of Atpadi, Kawthe Mahankal and Jat taluka is drained by Man and Bor river, tributaries of Bhima river. The Krishna, Warna and Morna rivers are perennial while all other rivers and streams are seasonal. Overall drainage pattern is dendritic, but locally other drainage patterns such as trellis, rectangular, angulate and subparallel are also observed.
The slope is steep in hilly areas and gentle MDP and UDP area. The direction of the slope is towards South-East in the parts of Jat taluka direction of the slope towards North-East.
Area is covered by the basaltic flows related to Deccan Volcanic activity of Cretaceous to Eocene age. They generally exhibit step like topography and hence are known as Deccan Trap. These flows very in thickness of individual flow from few meters to 40 meters. They extend for a considerable distance. The basaltic lava flow is almost uniform in mineralogical and chemical composition.
The basaltic flow can be classified as Compact, fine-grained, massive basalt and vesicular, amygdaloidal basalt, the vesicles are filled with secondary minerals like Quartz, chalcedony and calcite etc. Comparatively soft, friable and break more easily. The boundaries of basalt flows have been identified on the basis of the presence of red beds, change in joining and weathering pattern, ropy surface etc. Another criteria which can be used for the identification of various basaltic flows is the development of flat surface at various altitudes. These flat surfaces may be taken as flow tops. Basaltic flows are often separated by red to brown colored clayey rock known as ‘red beds’. The thickness of red bed varies from few centimeters to more than 2 meters. It also a gradational relationship with the top section of underlying flow.
In high rainfall are and under good drainage condition on weathering of basalt, laterite is formed. During weathering process silica, alkalies and alkaline earth have been leached away leaving behind alumina, iron, manganese and titanium. Laterite shows vermiculite or pisolitic structure. Hills I parts of Shirala, Walwa and Jat taluka are capped by laterite.
Alluvium deposited are more or less stratified deposits of gravel, sand, silt and clays deposited by streams and river. In the district, alluvial deposits are well developed along the banks of the main rivers. They vary in thickness from few meters along Warna, Morna, Yerala, Agrani, Man and Bor rivers to 10.00 to 30.00meters along Krishna river. These deposits commonly show features like graded bedding, current bedding and cross bedding. At the base of these deposits, fine graded sand and silt are present along with kankar nodules locally known as Mann.
The soil of the district can be classified into lateritic, red, black, alluvial and saline-alkaline soils. This classification depends on the climate, rainfall, drainage, characteristic and geology of the area.
Lateritic Soil: Soil is rich in iron and aluminum with titanium and manganese. It is red in color. Lateritic soil is found in parts of Shirala, Walwa, Miraj and Jat taluka. The lateritic soil is poor in fertility.
Red Soils: Reddish brown color soil is found on hill slopes and undulating terrain.
Black Soil: Most part of the district is covered by black soil. This is clayey to loamy soil composed of clay generally known as black cotton soil. High in alumina, lime and magnesia and low potash nitrogen and phosphorus. Black cotton soil has high moisture retention capacity and fertility.
Alluvial Soil: This type of soil is mainly transported and seen on the banks of the main rivers in the district.
Saline and Alkaline Soil: This type of soil is developed in the areas having poor drainage system and excessive irrigation. This type of soil is developed in the parts of Miraj taluka.
Economic Minerals: There is no mineral of economic importance in the district. However, basalt is a good building stone and road metal.
Lime Stone : Lime stone of very poor quality is occurring around Miraj city.
Clay : Clay is found on the banks of major rivers in the district and used for brick industry in the district.
Sand: Sand is the another building material which is available in the courses of major streams and river beds in the district.
Hydromorphogeology of the district:
In the rock terrain occurrence, storage and movement of groundwater are mainly controlled by the morphology of the area. For groundwater assessment study district area is divided into 38 watersheds (In Krishna basin 23 watersheds and 15 watersheds in Bhima basin), as watershed represents a small homogenous unit of main drainage system under similar sets of physiographic conditions.
On the basis of remote sensing data study, district has been morphologically divided into three major groups as under;
Highly dissected plateau: HDP
Moderately dissected plateau: MDP
Un-dissected plateau: UDP
Valley Fill: VF
Western Ghat Section: WGS
On the basis of hydrological characters of the watersheds they are classified in to three categories:
Run off zone: A
Recharge zone: B
Storage zone: C
The lineaments is a mappable simple or composite linear feature of a surface whose parts are aligned in a rectangular or slightly curvilinear and differs sharply from the pattern of adjacent features and reflects a subsurface phenomenon. Lineaments are recognized on satellite imageries and aerial photographs on the basis of rectilinear or slightly curvilinear deposition of geomorphic features like coastline, cliffs and river segments. They can also be inferred on the basis of tonal and textural contrasts. Features like dyke, fault traces may be marked by line of vegetation. On topographic sheets lineaments may marked corresponding to very straight coastline, inlets, straight segments of streams following angular turns, contours depicting scarps and linear ridgaes. Trellis and rectangular drainage pattern or lines of hot springs.
Sangli district is located in the western part of Maharashtra. It is bounded by Satara, Solapur districts to the north, Vijapur district to the east, Kolhapur and Belgum and to the south and Ratnagiri district to the west.
Sangli district is situated in the river basins of the Warna and Krishna river. The physical settings of Sangli district shows a contrast of immense dimensions and reveals a variety of landscapes influenced by relief, climate and vegetation. The climate ranges from the rainiest in the Chandoli (Shirala) region, which has an average annual all of over 4000 mm to the driest in Atpadi and Jath tehsils where the average annual rainfall is about 500 mm. The vegetal cover too varies from the typical monsoon forest in the western parts to scrub and poor grass in the eastern parts.
: 62.41 %
: 74.88 %
: 49.94 %
Tahasil's -( 10)
1. Miraj 2.Tasgaon 3.Kavathe Mahankal
Panchayat Samiti (10)
4. Jath 5.Khanapur(Vita) 6.Palus 7.Atpadi
8.Walwa(Islampur) 9. Kadegaon 10.Shirala Mahanagar Palika(1)
Nagar Palika (4)
Irritation: Major Projects : 1 Medium Projects : 5 Krishna Khore:
There are 1 Major , 5 Medium and 54 minor projects ( total - 60 ) are in progress by Krishna Valley Development Corporation.