Jalgaon Introduction:Jalgaon district is famous for it's Banana plantation located in Northern West part of Maharashtra state & previously known as East Khandesh. The total geographical area of the district is 11765 sq. km (9th in State) that include 1513 villages, 15 Taluka and Jalgaon city as a district head quarter. The total population of the district is 3682690 souls. Out of which 80 % is rural and 20 % urban population.
Jalgaon district is located 20° 0' 15" to 21° 0' 22" North latitude and 75° 0' 51" to 76° 0' 28" East longitude.
Geography:Jalgaon district is a part of Deccan plateau and having Satpuda Hill ranges in Northern part, Ajantha hill ranges in South part.The elevation range is from 175 m to 325 m. Tapi River, which flows in the western direction, is the main river of the district. Girna, Waghur, Bori, Anjani, Mor, Titur, Suki are the sub river of Tapi river. Geology:Jalgaon district comprises of two type of geological formation i.e. Basalt lava flows gently sloping and termed as Deccan trap formation and Tapi alluvium.
a) Deccan trap formation- near about sixty-percentage area covers mostly the Southern and Northern portion of the district. Deccan trap consists of basaltic lava flows of variable thickness with massive vesicular and amygdaloidal basalt.
b) Tapi alluvium- Tapi alluvial formation occurs in the central area of the district. Tapi alluvium deposit is formed due to simultaneous land subsidence and deposition phenomenon cause during passive faulting. Tapi alluvium comprises over 306 m thick alluvial deposit filling faulted through of Tapi rift valley, occurs 250 km long 55 km wide in Dhule and Jalgaon district. Alluvium comprises of the alternating bed of pebbles cobbles graves sand of various size mixed with silt.
Hydrogeology:District is divided into 66 elementary watersheds by GSDA. Geology plays a major important role in the occurrence of groundwater. The alluvial formation occurs mostly in central part along Tapi river having silt admixed with sand of various size gravels pebbles boulder is the main aquifer and well depth range is 35 to 50 m below ground level. And average water level summer is 32 to 34 m and in winter 28 to 30 m. wells and tube wells in this area are perennial and yield ranges 10 to 250 KLPD.
In Deccan trap area weathered, fracture joined and vesicular basalt is the main aquifer. It occurs in the Northern and Southern part of district well depth range is 10 to 18 m below ground level. The average water level summer is 7 to 12 m and in winter 2 to 7 m. most of the wells in this area are seasonal and general yield ranges 5 to 50 KLPD.
Fig 1- Hydrograph in alluvial part of district: Geography: Total watershed Safe watershed Semi critical Critical Over exploited Remarks 66 38 17 2 9 Critical & Overexploited occurs in alluvial part Historical:In Mahabharata, Gomati, Kheda, Manika & Vidharbha are the main region out of which Khada is referred as Khandesh region. Up to 1906 Dhule district and Jalgaon district jointly known as Khandesh and in 1906 it was divided into East and West khandesh comprises of 10 taluka and 3 pethas in 1999 district is dividing into fifteen talukas.
The hanging Pillars is located in Farkande village of Erondal Taluka, Famous Changadeo temple at the confluence of Tapi and Purna river, Hot water spring occurs nr Unapdev in Chopda Taluka. Historical temple of lord Ganesha near village Padmalya in Erandal Taluka is some places in the district.
Cultural:Marathi, Ahirani are the main speaking language of the area. The people in western part of district speak Ahirani language.
The hill ranges Satpuda where tribal population occurs three Taluka mainly Yawal Raver and Chopda covering 63 villages Tadvi, Pawara are the main tribal cast. Apart from traditional festivals, Rathyatra and 12 Bullockcart are the pulled by men are the main traditional festival celebrated by the people.
Hot spot:Depleting water level in alluvial part of the district, Rainfall is the main reason for scarcity and flood. During the year 2006 district experience major flood, Bird flu and chicken guinea diseases. In the month of May 2006,2007 & 2008, Raver Taluka faced strong storms continuously.
River Linkage Project:Surplus water from Girna Dam is utilized to fill other medium and minor dam though Girna canal network. Website: www. jalgaon.nic.in