Major boundary of the district is occupied by the Wardha river. Due to this reason Britisher’s have give name “Wardha” to this district. Wardha district is located in 200 8’ to 210 22’ N 780 4’ to 790 15’ E. It is comprises in the 55 K,L,P degree sheet.
Wardha district is situated at Western side of Vainganga vallies in South-East Part of Maharashatra. District is covered with Satpuda Hills at the north where as Western side is occupied by the vallies of river Purna. The plain Plateau of the Nagpur district is at Eastern side where as the river Wardha flows from the boundaries of the North, West and South.
Total area of the Wardha district is 6309 sq. km. with 158 kms in length and 58 kms in breadth. Average rainfall of district is 985-1100 mm. Head quarter of Wardha district is Wardha. For the easy administrative purpose district is divided into 8 talukas – Wardha, Selu, Deoli, Hinganghat, Samudrapur, Arvi, Ashti, and Karanja. Among these taluka places 6 are Nagar Parishad area.
Wardha district has long historic value. The Prayer of Sewagram, march of Paunar and the Ashti’s Revolutionary freedom is nothing but the soul of Wardha district. As compare to other districts in Maharashtra State, though Wardha District is smaller in area but greater with its fame.
Geographically Wardha district naturally divides itself into two parts, the North being hilly form an inlying spur of the Satpura range, while to the south lies an undulating plain intersected by streams. Northern side area have average height of 450 m with high slope. Southern side area have average height of 250 m with normal slope.
Maximum part of Wardha district occupies by the Wardha river and her tributaries. Almost all rivers from district originates from different hills and part of Satpura hill ranges. Except some portions of Wardha and Vena river, other rivers are seasonal.
Main River – Wardha
Tributaries – Vena, Yashoda, Bakli, Jam, Kar, Pothara, lai, Nand, Bor and Dham.
Height of left bank of Wardha and Vena river is more than the height of right bank, because of that flood water is common at left side. Drainage pattern of Wardha, Selu, Deoli, Hinganghat, Samudrapur talukas have dendritic pattern while at Southern portion in Ashti, Karanja, Arvi taluka have parallel or sub-parallel dendritic pattern. This is mainly due to joints and fractures present in the Basalt. Because of that maximum rivers in the Northen portion flow in NS direction parallel to main river.
In the Wardha district have one major irrigation project (Bor Dam), three medium irrigation projects ( Panchdhara , Dongargaon and Pothara) and 91 small irrigation projects , 8 lift irrigation projects, 166 Kolhapuri Bandhara .
Wardha district is mainly comprised of basalt. Recent to subrecent alluvium planes deposited by Wardha River and her tributaries. Geological succession of the area is as follows:
Time Geological Formation Rock Type Sub-recent to recent Alluvium Sand, Silt, Clay, Limestone, Upper Cretaceous – Deccan Trap Vesicular Basalt, Lower Eocene Massive Fractured Basalt, Intertrappean beds with red and green bole, chert and limestone
• Middle Cretaceous
• Infratrappean bed
• clay, limestone, sandstone
Deccan basalt have almost no primary porosity and permeability. Percolation of water and subsurface movement of water is mainly depend upon presence of joints, fracture and its width and depth. In alluvium portion, hydrological conditions are good, where major portion is made up of sand.
Water level below the ground level is different at different places. Availability of water in hard and massive basalt is less as compare to vesicular, jointed and fractured basalt. Average water level in massive trap is 6 to 12 m while 10 to 15 m in the vesicular / fractured trap.
In a good hydrological condition, a well can yield almost 200 k Lit water per day.
Major project run by the Senior Geologist’s office, Groundwater Survey And Development Agency, Wardha:
Shivakalin Pani Sathwan Yojna:
Source strengthening of drinking water well is main aim of this project. This project is run as per villager’s demand need. The projects taken are Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting, Village Tank, Cement Plug, BBT, Hydrofracturing. In Wardha district, 1201 projects implemented in 104 villages. Due to these projects, 13 villages are made tankerfree, 7 villages get success to reduce their tanker period. Similarly 26 villages made scarcity free and 10 villages reduce their scarcity period. Number of FC villages are increased from 4 to 42. For this project, 539.07 Rs Lakh fund has been received, from which 538.30 Rs Lakhs was spend.
Some Names of successful villages from these projects are
Seldoh – tal . Selu ,
Dhamkund – tal. Karanja
Navargaon Heti – tal Selu
Projects taken as Project Implementation Agency
Vidarbha Watershed Development Project:
Vidarbha Watershed Development Project under which watershed development programme is to be started Maharashatra government has declared with standing order no SLF-18/05 PRk 480 (Part-2/b) Jal - 12 Mantralay Mumbai-32. dated 13 September 2006.
In this project, this office have taken 11 villages in Selu taluka and 4 villages in Karanja taluka to run watershed development activity. For these 1.46 Crores Rs has been received for 4800 Hectare. In this area soil conservation and water conservation activities are proposed. In this project, different works has been performed like 1699.47 Hect Farm Bunding, 5 village tank, 3 Nala widening & 7 Cement Plug. With this to do capacity building and social and economical strengthening of the villagers various trainings programmed and guidance are given to the villagers. Honorable Prime Minister check dam project under which cement plug are to be constructed
Under this project, maximum 2 Lakh Rs can be spend to construct one checkdam. In each checkdam approximately 7 to 8 TCM water can be stored. Due to which water level in the wells can be increased from which additional 8 to 10 Hect area can be irrigated.
Under this project in year 2006-07, 56 check dams were completed and for that Rs. 107.21 Lakhs was spent. In year 2007-08 target was 100 among which 54 is completed and Rs 90.13 Lakh was spend.