Gadchiroli district was formed on 26th August 1982 by separating from old Chandrapur District of Maharashtra State. This district is tribal and very much backward & under developed. This district lies in between North latitude 18°18'00" & 20°50'00". East longitude 79°45'00" and 80°54'00". The district is elongated in the North-South direction having a total area of 14412 Sq.km. Out of which 12504 Sq.km (86.76%) is occupied by forest area. The district is 4.68% of total area of Maharashtra State and stands fourth amongst the districts of Maharashtra State.
The total population of this district is about 9,70,294 as per 2001 census code. It is the smallest district in terms of population in Maharashtra. Administratively the district is divided into 12 talukas and 4 subdivisions. The 12 talukas are namely Gadchiroli, Chamorshi, Aheri, Mulchera, Etapalli, Bhamragad, Sironcha, Armori, Wadsa, Dhanora, Kurkheda & Korchi.
The climate of this district is dry & salubrious. The average annual rainfall is about 1300 to 1350 mm. The main crop is paddy.
Topographically the major part of the district is undulating and covered by forest. The area towards south of Godavari river is low having an elevation is about 160 mtr MSL & Eastern half of the district having numerous hills rising to an elevation of about 350 mtr MSL. The important hill ranges of the district are Aheri, Bhamragad, Srikonda, Tippagad, Palasgad and Surjagad. The highest mountain peak of 967 mtr MSL lies in the Gadagutta range in the district.
The district forms part of the drainage basin of the Godavari River. The major rivers of the district are Godavari, Wainganga, Indravati and Pranhita. Other important tributaries are Dina, Khobragadi, Kathani, Bandiya, and Kothri.Geology:
Gadchiroli district is covered by largely Metamorphic Terrain where about 84% of geographical area is occupied by Granitic gneisses, Quartzites, Pegmatites, Amphibolites etc. 11% by Vindhyans and Cuddapahs and the rest by Gondwana sedimentary and recent deposits of Alluvium.
In this district, occurrence and movement of Ground water depends upon the rock formation of the area. It is generally influenced by the following factors.
- Intergranular primary porosity and permeability.
- Thickness and extent of weathered zones.
- Topographic setting of the area.
- Surface water bodies influencing ground water recharge.
- Development of joints, fractures, lineaments constituting secondary porosity and permeability
The major part of the Gadchiroli District is Occupied by Archean rocks consisting of Granite Gneisses, Schist. These unweathered rock do not have intergranular porosity and permeability but occurrences of groundwater in these formation is controlled by degree of weathering, Jointing and fracturing. Where degree of weathering, Jointing and fracturing is more, groundwater condition is good.
The pre-Cambrian formations like sandstone, shale, conglomerate, breccia, quartzite occur in south & southwestern part of district. In sandstone and conglomerate condition groundwater occurs in confined and unconfined conditions.
In Sironcha Taluka about 740 Sq.km. areas is covered by the Gondwana formation like sandstone, shale & conglomerates. The sandstone & conglomerate of these formation having good primary porosity & permeability, forms the best aquifer in this area.
Alluvium occurs over a small area of about 10 sq.km. Along the banks of major river. It consist of sand, gravel, silt, clay & kankars. The coarse-grained sand and gravels are very good aquifer. In this area groundwater occurs under confined & semi-confined condition.
In this district, the thickness of weathering is more i.e. 18 to 24 mtrs and clayee in nature. Therefore it is difficult to construct dugwells to proper depth and hence the wells are poor yielding. So it is proposed to take dug-cum-borewellat the bottom of the dugwell to encounter the aquifer.Shivkalin Pani Sathawan YojanaCement Bandhara Thanegaon/ AarmoriCement Bandhara KurakhedaGurwalaKurkhedaCement Bandhara
In Gadchiroli district a famous place known as Markandadeo. Shivling temple, is located in Chamorshi Taluka. This temple was built by a great famous king name Rastrakuta. It is situated on the left bank of Wainganga River. The architecture of this ancient temple is in Hemadpanthi style.
The Somnur village in Sironcha Tahsil is famous for the confluence of three big river i.e Indravati, Pranhita and Godavari. The important characteristics of this district is dense forest and metal ore deposit. The most valuable species are found such as teak, sisam & bamboo etc. The district has a large reserves of high grade iron ore. The iron ore reserves are situated at Maseli, Surjagad, Maregaon, Armori, and Deulgaon.
In this district there is only one major & one medium irrigation project i.e Itiyadoh and Dina Project respectively By Itiyadoh project 8098 hectares land & Dina project 11062 hectares land gets irrigated. Beside this, there are around 470 private and 2225 government tank available for irrigation.
In this district, all traditional festivals are celebrated But most famous focal dance of Adivasi & Madiya people is Rella & Gondi dance. Along with this Naka Pudum & Peri Pudum festivals are also celebrate.
Gadchiroli district comes under assured rainfall zone. In this district average rainfall is about 1300 mm to 1400 mm. During Rainy season, every year Bhamragad, Ettapalli, Sironcha and Aheri taluka gets flooded. Due to this, contacts between headquarter and these talukas gets unconnected for about one month. This causes severe losses to the villagers.