Ground Water Suveys and Development Agency, Pune | Hydrogeology of Maharashtra

Hydrogeology of Maharashtra

  • SALIENT FEATURES OF MAHARASHTRA  
     

    1. Location

    :

    Longitude 750 30' 00" to 800 30' 00"
    Latitude   150  40' 00" to 220 00' 00"

     
         
    2. Area:3,07,690 sq. kms  
         
    3. Coastline:720 kms.  
         

    4. Population (2001)

    :

    Urban    4.10 Corers 
    Rural     5.57 Corers

    Total      9.67 Corers

      
         

    5. Physiography 

    :

    HDP Area : 61,538 Sq.Km.
    MDP Area : 1,53,845 Sq. Km.
    UDP/Valley fill Area : 92,307 Sq. Km.

     

     

        
         

    6. Rainfall  

    :

    a) High Rainfall 5000 to 7500 mm
    b) DPAP Area 400 to 700 mm
    c) Assures Rainfall Zone 800 to 1250 mm

     
         

    7. Soils

    :

    a) Plains and Central High Lands : Dark brown to Black calcareous loams and clay.
    b) Western Ghats & Peninsular Plateau Shallow lithbrown to dark brown gravel loams on high slopes, red to reddishbrown leterites and lateritic soils on high level
    c) Costal Plains Laterites and Lateritic soils red to raddishbrown loam of non lateritic origin.

     
         
    8. Cultivable Area:2,10,390 Sq. Kms.  
         
    9. Forest Area:64,078 Sq. Kms.  
         
    10. Irrigation potential created by all sources : 37,197.56 Sq. Kms.

    11. River Basins : 

    Sr.No.BasinArea in Sq.Kms.Number of Watersheds.
    1.Narmada149508
    2.Tapi East32646184
    3.Godavari43283189
    4.Krishna2023796
    5.Westerly Flowing2153397
    6.Bhima35922161
    7.Wainganga27558161
    8.Wardha21397117
    9.Godavari Purna16362101
    10.Penganga22972108
    11.Purna Tapi1673298
    12.Manjara1583578
    13.Sina1223458
    14.Indravati548831
    15.Pranhita339516
     
     

    12. Cropping Pattern   :

    (a) Konkan : Paddy, Horticulture & Vegetables.
    (b) Western Maharashtra : Jowar, Wheat, Sugarcane, Groundnut, Onion, Horticulture,       Sunflower.
    (c) Central Maharashtra : Jowar, Wheat, Cotton, Sugarcane, Grams,vegetables,      Sunflower,Safola.
    (d) Vidarbha : Paddy, Jowar, Wheat, Cotton, Orange, Grams, Chilli.
    (e) Khandesh : Jowar, Grams, Banana, Wheat, Chilli

     
     
    13. Geology Of Maharashtra: 
     

     

    Sr No
    Formation
    Area in sq.kms
    Percentage
    1Pleistocene and Quaternary Alluvial Sediment14,5004.71
    2Deccan Trap lava flows2,50,00081.20
    3Gondwana Sedimentary Rock Formation4,8001.55
    4Vindhyan and Cuddapah Pre-Cambrain Sediments6,2002.00
    5Archeans and Dharwar Metamorphic complexes32,2001.048

    Geology of Maharashtra State is practically the geology of Deccan Trap, which occur in all the districts of the State excepting Bhandara. The other geological formations, older and younger than Deccan Trap, occur in the districts of Bhandara, Wardha, Chandrapur, Gadchiroli, Nagpur, Yeotmal, Buldhana, Akola, Amravati, Dhule, Jalgaon, Nanded, Kolhapur, Sindhudurg and Ratnagiri. In the remaining 14 districts, Deccan Trap is the only geological formation occurring in them. These Deccan Traps are capped by laterites as seen in Raigad, Ratanagiri, Sindhudurg, Satara, Sangali, Kolhapur and Osmanabad districts. The stratigraphic succession of geological formation in the state, is as follows.


    AgeGeological UnitGeographical distribution in the State
    Recent, Sub-Recent and PleistoceneAlluvial, Laterite etc.Alluvial in parts of Dhule, Jalgaon, Buldhana, Akola and Amravati districts. Laterites in Kolhapur, Satara, Sangali, Ratnagiri, Raigad and Thane districts.
    Lower Eocene-Upper CretaceousDeccan Trap, Volcanic Lava Flows with intertrappean beds, Lametas and Bagh BedsAll the districts of the State except Bhandara
    Jurrasic (Upper Gondwana)Chikiala and Kota stages: LimestoneDhule, Nagpur and Amravati districts
    TriassicPachmari and Maleri stages : Clays, SandstonesSironcha taluka of Gadchiroli district and Achalpur taluka of Amravati district
    Permian (Lower Gondwana)Kamthi series : Sandstone, Shale and CoalWarora taluka of Chandrapur district
    Barakar series : Sandestones, Shales and CoalNagpur, Chandrapur and Yavatmal districts
    Upper CarboneferousTalchir SeriesNagpur, Chandrapur and Yavatmal districts
    Pre-CambrianVindhyan System : Limestone, Shales and SandstonesYavatmal, Nanded and Chandapur
    Cuddapah system : Limestone and ShalesSironcha taluka of Gadchiroli district
    Kaladgi series : Sandstone, Conglomerates and ShalesRatnagiri and Sindhudurg districts
    Middle DharwarSakoli Series : Iron ore seriesGadchiroli, Chandrapur, Nagpur, Bhandara and Sindhudurg districts
    Lower DharwarSausar SeriesNagpur amd Bhandara districts
    ArcheansOlder Schists and Unclassified CrystallinesGadchiroli, Chandrapur, Nagpur, Bhandara and Sindhudurg districts


    Archeans :

    The Archeans are the oldest the rocks which are metamorphosed. They comprise rock formations called the older schists and the unclassified crystallines which are overlain by the metasediments of Dharwar system and the intrusives such as Granite, Diorites etc. The unclassified crystalline include varios Gneisses which occur in Nagpur, Bhandara, Chandrapur, Gadchiroli and Sindhudurg districts. The Proterizoic metamsediemnts are divided in to three different series namely Sausar, Sakoli and Iron ore series.


    Sausar Series:

    The Proterozoic metasediments of this include a variety of rocks such as Calogranulites, Calciphyres, Quartzites, Geisses, Schists, Manganese bearing Gondites etc. Structurally these group of metasediments are intensely folded and faluted, these subjected to a number of tectonic events.


    Sakoli Series :

    The Sakoli group of rocks consists of Pelitic, Psamopelitic and Metabasic sediments. These include Quartzites Phhyllites, Amphibolites, Schists and associated volcanics.


    Iron Ore Series :

    It constitutes the important iron ore deposits of Gadchiroli and Sindhudurg districts. The rock are Quartzites, Banded Hematite Quartzites, Schists and Phyllites. The rock and associated iron ore deposits occur in Chnadrapur, Gadchiroli and parts of Nagpur and Bhandara districts.
    These have been intruded on a very large by Granites and basic intrusive, and vast areas of Chandrapur and Bhandara districts have been occupied by Granites, Granitoid Gneisses etc. At the southern tip of Sindhudurg district, these comprise Schists, Phyllites, Agrillites, Banded Hematite Quartzites with basic intrusion and from separate patches striking NNW-SSE.


    Archeans :

    The Archeans are the oldest the rocks which are metamorphosed. They comprise rock formations called the older schists and the unclassified crystallines which are overlain by the metasediments of Dharwar system and the intrusives such as Granite, Diorites etc. The unclassified crystalline include varios Gneisses which occur in Nagpur, Bhandara, Chandrapur, Gadchiroli and Sindhudurg districts. The Proterizoic metamsediemnts are divided in to three different series namely Sausar, Sakoli and Iron ore series.


    Sausar Series:

    The Proterozoic metasediments of this include a variety of rocks such as Calogranulites, Calciphyres, Quartzites, Geisses, Schists, Manganese bearing Gondites etc. Structurally these group of metasediments are intensely folded and faluted, these subjected to a number of tectonic events.


    Sakoli Series :

    The Sakoli group of rocks consists of Pelitic, Psamopelitic and Metabasic sediments. These include Quartzites Phhyllites, Amphibolites, Schists and associated volcanics.


    Iron Ore Series :

    It constitutes the important iron ore deposits of Gadchiroli and Sindhudurg districts. The rock are Quartzites, Banded Hematite Quartzites, Schists and Phyllites. The rock and associated iron ore deposits occur in Chnadrapur, Gadchiroli and parts of Nagpur and Bhandara districts.
    These have been intruded on a very large by Granites and basic intrusive, and vast areas of Chandrapur and Bhandara districts have been occupied by Granites, Granitoid Gneisses etc. At the southern tip of Sindhudurg district, these comprise Schists, Phyllites, Agrillites, Banded Hematite Quartzites with basic intrusion and from separate patches striking NNW-SSE.


    Pre-Cambrian Puranas :

    The Archaean rock are overlain by the pre-cambrain or the Purana formations which are divided into two major system namely the Cuddapah and the Vindhyan system.
    The Cuddapah rocks, which are mainly Crystalline Limestone, occupy a small areas in the southern part of Gadchiroli district. The rock formations refrred toas kaladgis (equivalent of Cuddapah) rest directly on the Archean rocks in Sindhudurg district. Formerly these had apparently occupied a very large area which is now covered by the Deccan Lava flows. These rocks comprise mainly of Quatzitic Sandstones and Shales and have give rise to important deposits of Silica sands.
    A vast areas, in the districts of Nanded, Yavatmal, Chandrapur and Gadchiroli, is occupied by the rocks of Vindhyansystem consisting of limestones, Dolimitic Limestones, Purple Shales and Feldspathic Sandstone.



    Gondwana System :

    The coal bearing Gondwana sediments were deposited in riffed basins formed by the rejuvenation of the south in central India. The sedimentary rocks belonging to the Gondwana system can be divided inti two groups namely the Lower and the Upper.
    The Lower Gondwana sediments include the Talchir series, the oldest group of rocks belonging to this period, followed by Barakar series, kamthi series and Mangli beds.
    The Talchir series include seriated boulders and green shales, sandstone, clays and mudstones were deposited during the glacial period.
    The Barakar series consists of a thick succession of alternate layers of sandstones, shales with interbeded coal seams.
    The youngest group of rocks belonging to the lower Gondwana sequence is known as the Mangli beds and consists of conglomerates, grits and hard sandstones and are seen in warora taluka of Chandrapur district.
    The upper Gondwana sediments include Pachmari, Maleri, kotta and Chikils group are mainly seen in Sironcha taluks of Gadchiroli district. Around Bairamghat in Amravati district, the Pachmari group of sediments are exposed. It consists essentially of sandstone, shales and clays and includes number of plant fossils.


    Lameta and Bagh Beds :

    The rocks formations referred to the Bagh Beds are exposed along the southern bank of Narmada river in Akkalkuwa taluka of Nandurbar district and comprise of siliceous limestones and sandstones. The Lanetas are Infra-trappean beds which comprise calcareous sandstone, cherty limestones and calys. The are located at various places and along the fringes of the Deccan Trap as near Nagpur and in Amravati district.


    Deccan Trap :

    The basalt lava flow called as the ‘Deccan Trap: were formed as fissure eruptions with a time lag between two volcanic episodes, which wre marked by the deposition bybthe fresh water sediments known as intertrappean.
    The Deccan Trap are the important geological formation in the Indian sub-continent. In Maharashtra State, it occupies an area of about 2,46,784 sq.kms, which is about 82% of the State. It is found in all the districts of the state excepted Bhandara. It occurs upto a height of about 1636 meters A.M.S.L. and to considerable depth below sea level. It is a vast pileup of volvanic products such as tuff, breccia and ash beds.
    The Deccan Trap lava flow can be broadly divided into the following major physical units:

    1. Massive and Compact,

    2. Vesicular

    3. Amygdular or Zeolitic

    4. Jointed or fractured and breciated.

    The lava flow are often associated with beds of pyroclastic and sedimentary origin. The sediments associated with the lava flow are known as inter-trappean beds, which consists of sandstones, clays, limestones or charts. Another conspicuous layer associated with the lava flows is the clay like material known as sred-bole. These lava flows are sometimes intruded by the intrusive dykes which may cut across a number of flows and form an important physiographic feature.

    The Deccan Trap lava flows have been erupted from long narrow fissures and have great areal extent in comparison with the thickness.

    The individual lava flow varies greatly in thickness from a few metres to as much as 30-35 metres. The thickness of these lava flows is maximum in the western part of the state where it is reported to be of the order of 3000 metres. These flows have been completely thinned out to the east, near Nagpur.


    ALLUVIUM –

    The alluvial deposits generally occur along the lower reaches of major river valleys and along the coastal areas. However, such deposits are not well developed in the State. Two well known alluvial deposits namely, a Tapi Valley (districts of Dhule and Jalgaon) and the Purna Valley (districts of Buldhana, Akola and Amravati) are recognized. These alluvial deposits belong to slightly older period in geological history then most of the alluvial deposits in the coastal areas of the country. These are referred to as older alluvium. The alluvial deposits in the Tapi and Purna valleys occur in separate, rather, long narrow basins and occupy a total area of 10,500 Sq.Kms. of which Tapi covers an area of 4100 Sq.Kms. and Purna covers 6400 Sq. Kms.

    On the basis of exploratory drilling, it is known that, these alluvial deposits attain considerable thickness, maximum being about 425 metres and it is in the northern part where the basement has been faulted.

    The alluvial material in these two basins consists of boulders, cobbles, pebbles and gravels referred to as boulder alluvium.

    Minor alluvial deposits are also known to occur in other parts of the State such as along Bhima, Godavari, Wardha, Wainganga, Penganga rivers and also some along their tributaries.

     
    14. HYDROGEOLOGY OF MAHARASHTRA STATE – 
     
     

    Groundwater occurs in the pores and interstices amongst the grains in the Rock formation and in joints, fractures, fissures, cracks and other forms of openings in the geological formations. The size, number, nature, amount of interstitial space and relationship amongst them vary widely in different geological formations. Groundwater occurs and moves through the interstitial space in the various strata under two broad conditions, namely, water table condition and confined condition. Groundwater occurring under water table condition is met with at relatively shallow depth and is withdrawn by dug wells.

    Tube wells, borewells and dug-cum-borewells generally tap groundwater occurring under confined and semi-confined conditions in the water bearing strata.



     

Water plays an important role for existence of mankind. The demand of water is rapidly increasing for drinking, irrigation and industrial uses. The increasing demand is also related to the increase in the population.