Pune region consists of five districts, viz. Pune, Satara, Sangli, Solapur and Kolhapur. The total area of the region is 57255 Sq.kms. East-West width 275 kms. and North-South length 410 kms. The largest district in area is Pune with 15643 sq.kms. and Kolhapur district is smaller in region with 7685 Sq. kms.
Pune Region comprises of 57 Revenue tahsils which include 6507 villages and 16728 ladies Population of the region as per 1991 Census is 1.64 Crores.
GEOGRAPHICAL SET UP -
Geologically, Pune region divided into two parts, one is Western region which is covered by hilly terrain of Sahyadri and another is Easterly Zone covered by Mahadev Hilly range.
Average rainfall of the region is 750 mm and highest rainfall experienced in Mahabaleshwar was 6090 mm & lowest rainfall experienced in Atpadi was 353 mm.
On the basis of rainfall Region is divided into 3 zones.
1. High Rainfall Zone - Upto 1000 mm - Western part of area.
2. Assured Rainfall Zone - 750 mm to 1000 mm - Middle part
3. Low Rainfall Zone (D.P.A.P.) - Less than 750 mm - Eastern part
Assured rainfall zone covers Sangli, Satara, Kolhapur and Pune districts and eastern part of Sangli, Satara, Pune & entire Solapur district is under D.P.A.P.area.
619 Observation wells have been fixed in 263 Watersheds to monitor the groundwater level (Status) periodically and 220 piezometers have been constructed.
The region is covered by 99 percent hard rocks & 1 percent alluvium area. Major rock formation is basalt, in western part Kolhapur, Satara & Sangli districts laterite is noticed. Radhanagari, Kagal, Bhudargad, Ajra, Gadhinglaj & Chandgad tahsils of Kolhapur districts granite kneiss is noticed. In some parts of Satara district, bauxite is observed in small scale.
Two major rivers originate in the Region, one is Krishna originates at Mahabaleshwar & Bhima from Bhimashankar. Other tributaries viz. Sina, Pancha Ganga, Yerla, Man, Mula, Mutha, Nira & Koyna joins with these major rivers.
GROUNDWATER STATUS -
Groundwater Status of Pune Region is mixed type, high rainfall in Sahyadri hill ranges, but due to steep slope and hard rock type more rain off and less recharge, hence poor in groundwater condition. But major irrigation projects are constructed in Sahyadri ranges. The D.P.A.P. area covers part of Sangli, Satara, Pune and entire Solapur district, where groundwater condition is moderate to poor, only Kolhapur district is rich in groundwater potential. Due to excessive surface irrigation and poor drainage system, salinity problem is noticed in Sangli and Kolhapur district on the bank of Krishna river.
GROUNDWATER ASSESSMENT -
As per 6th Groundwater Assessment, out of 263 watersheds, 25 watersheds are over exploited and 8 watersheds are critical and 40 are semi critical. Due to excessive draft, groundwater level is depleting in all over exploited and critical watersheds.
SALIENT FEATURES -
Pune region include Kolhapur, Sangli, Satara & Pune are developed districts in the region. Historical places like Shivneri, Purandar, Rajgad, Sinhgad, Pratapgad, Vishalgad & Panhalgad, etc. and Holy place like Dakshin Kashi (Kolhapur), Pandharpur, Nrusinhwadi, Alandi, Dehu, Jejuri, Morgaon, Ranjangaon, Theur, Lenyadri, Ozar, Sajjangad, Audumbar,etc.
Industrially, most developed Pune Region, Pune district is an Industrially developed district having Auto industry, Information Technology Industry, Educational Centre, Kolhapur having Foundry Industry and Spinning Mills, Ichalkaranji, is a Manchester of Maharashtra. In addition to this, cooperative sector is well developed and established in Pune Region, due to cooperative sugar factories and spinning mills, cooperative banks, rural area of the Pune region is also well developed.