Hingoli district came into existence by division of Parbhani district on 1st May 1999. Hingoli itself is the head quarter of the district. Total area of the district is 4526 sq. km. while the total population is 9, 87,160 (Male 5, 05,373 and Female 4, 81,787). Lattitude of Hingoli district is 19.43N and Longitude is 77.11E.
The district is situated at the northern part of Marathwada in Maharashtra. Borders of Hingoli are surrounded by Akola and Yeotmal in northern side, Parbhani in western side and Nanded at south-eastern side. The elevation ranges from 500 m to 600 m above msl. Mainly three rivers drain the district. Painganga River flows in northern region of the district and passes through Sengaon and Kalamnuri talukas. Purna River flows from southern side of Sengaon and flows further south from Aundha and Basmat. Kayadhu River is the main river of the district. It is flows through Sengaon, Hingoli, Aundha and Kalamnuri talukas and meets to Painganga River in Nanded district.
The geology of the district is composed of Deccan Traps. In general typical alternating layers of varying thickness of vesicular amygdaloidal basalt and massive basalt are observed everywhere. At places adjoining the river beds the local alluvium in variable thickness is observedRoofTop_HingoliRoofTop_HingoliRoofTop_Hingoli2
The groundwater is mainly augmented from dug wells and bore wells. The depth of the dug wells ranges from 8m to 18m, while for bore wells depth ranges from 50m to 90m. For irrigation generally dug wells are preferred. Horizontal boreholes are drilled in the contacts of two layers, in most of the wells, to increase the yield. The water level ranges from 3.50m in post monsoon period (winter season) to 9.00m in pre monsoon period (summer season). The average annual rainfall is 900 mm.
Marathwada was initially under Nizam's regime. Hingoli former Taluka place of Parbhani district was there therefore part of Nizam's regime. It was actually Nizam's military base as it was border place with vidhrabha.In that era military troops, hospitals, veterinary hospital were in operation from Hingoli. Residents of Hingoli had experienced two big wars between Tipu Sultan and Maratha in 1803 and in 1857 between Nagpurkar and Bhosale. Being a military base the city was one of the important place of the Hydrabad State. Some of the names like Pultan, Risala, Tophkhana, Pensionpura, Sadar Bazaar are famous today. In the 1956, post independence when the state were reconstructed Marathwada was attached to Mumbai State and in 1960 Hingoli became part of the Maharashtra State as part of Parbhani district. Later on 1St may 1999 Hingoli district came in to existence by division of Parbhani
The twelve jyotirlingas are the most significant places of pilgrimage for Hindus in India. Five of them happen to be in Maharashtra. Shiva has been worshipped in these places for centuries. Aundha-Nagnath is one of them. Anudha Nagnath is in the Hingoli District. This pilgrim center is of great significance, since it is considered to be the Eighth (adya), of the 12 jyotirlingas. It is believed that Dharmraj (eldest of Pandav) has constructed this beautiful temple while they were expelled for 14 years from Hastinapur. The temple of Nagnath has exquisite carvings. The temple is of Hemadpanthi architecture and is situated in about 60,000 sq. ft area. Large numbers of pilgrims visit this temple on shivratri and Vijayadashmi.
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During summer season the undulating areas in the district like parts of Sengaon, Aundha faces water scarcity. There is no history of major earthquakes or floods in the district. Springs are also not reported