1] General:

Pune District is situated in Maharashtra state of India. Pune city is the district headquarter and commonly known as Oxford of the East. In the last census (2001), total population of the district is 7,232,555. Urban population comprises 58.08% of the total population. The current population of Pune urban agglomerate is over 4 million. It is located due SSE of state capital Mumbai about 160 km.


Administrative Setup
2.Head quarter-Pune
3.Nearest Railway Station-Pune Railway Station (Central Railway)
4.Nearest National Highway-Mumbai-Bangalore National Highway NH.4
Pune-Solapur Hyderabad Hational Highway NH.9
Pune-Nashik National Highway NH.50
Mumbai-Pune Expressway
5.Nearest Airport-Lohegaon, 10 km from city
6.No of municipal councils-Municipal corporation 02
Municipal councils 11
7.No of Tahsil-13
8.No of existing villages-1866

2] Geographical Setup

2.1] Location
Pune District is in the western region in Maharashtra in India. It is bounded by Thane District to the northwest, Raigad District to the west, Satara District to the south, Solapur District to the southeast, and Ahmednagar District to the north and northeast. Pune district lies in the Western Ghats or Sahyadri mountain range and it extends on to the Deccan Plateau on the east. Pune district is located between 17.5° to 19.2° North latitude and 73.2° to 75.1° East Longitude.

2.2] Elevation Range
The district area falls in Survey of India toposheet number 47 F/14. Pune is located 560m (1,837 ft) above sea level on the western margin of the Deccan plateau. It is situated on the leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain range (the Western Ghats), which separate it from the Arabian sea , with its tallest hill, Vetal Hill, rising to 800m (2,625 ft) above sea level. In Pune district, there are two municipal corporations, namely Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) and Pimpri-Chinchawad Municipal Corporation (PCMC). Pimpri Chinchwad is located at the West of Pune city, touching the Pune- Mumbai National highway.

2.3] Rainfall and Climate
The District receives rainfall from SW monsoon. Pune has a tropical wet and dry climate with average temperatures ranging between 20°C to 28°C. Pune experiences three distinct seasons: summer, monsoon and winter. Typical summer months are from March to May, with maximum temperatures ranging from 30° to 38 °C (85 to 100° F). The warmest month in Pune is April; although summer doesn’t end until May, the district often receives locally developed heavy thundershowers in May (although humidity remains high). Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to high altitude. The monsoon lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures ranging from 10°C to 28°C (50°F to 82°F). The maximum rainfall recorded in Pune district is 2691 mm (Velha Taluka) and the lowest rainfall recorded is 394 mm in Baramati taluka. Most of the 722mm of rainfall in the city fall between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Pune once received rainfall on 29 consecutive days

Winter begins in November; November in particular is known as the Rosy Cold. The daytime temperature hovers around 28 °C (83 °F) while night temperature is below 10 °C (50 °F) for most of December and January, often dropping to 5 or 6 °C (42 °F).

2.4] Rivers
Bhima is the nodal river in the district originating from Bhimashankar NW part of the district and flowing towards southeast. Ghod, Mutha and Nira are the tributaries. The delta of rivers Nira and Bhima is near Narshimpur Nira river flows from south of the district. It generally flows from west to east . Karha is tributary of Nira. Ghod River covers the northern part of the district, Kukdi and Mina are the tributaries. The other rivers are Mandvi, Pushpavati, Indrayani, Bhama, Pavana, Pune city is situated at the delta region of Mula and Mutha.

3] Geomorphology
Runoff zone – recharge zone 8931sq km and storage zone-1773 sq. km. As per 6th GEC they were categorized into 14 Overexploited, 2 Critical, 10 Semi Critical and 45 Safe. Most of the 722mm of rainfall in the city fall between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. The groundwater levels in the district are monitored with help of network of 192 observation wells and 71 peizometers. The average water level for the last five years for January, May and October is as follows.

4] Industries
The major industries in the district are

1.Sugar industries7 no. of sugar factories in the district
2.Arms & AmmunitionGunpowder & fireworks in the area of Khadaki
3.Medicinal productionPenicillin production at Pimpri
4.Glass & Thermo flasksIn the area of Talegaon Dabhade
5.Vehicle productionTrucks, Scooters, Motorcycle, Rickshaws etc

5] Historical Places

5.1] Pune City

i) Shaniwar wada – Located in the heart of the city This palace was build by Bajirao 1st in the 18th century. It was a 13 storey building . It used to be the head quarter of the Peshwas and it symbolizes Pune ‘s culture. Currently renovated & there are plans to have a lights & music show. The main part is left is nagarkhana which gives good inside view. This is an expansive palace with its impressive fountains and gardens. The palace was the seat of Peshwa power and later was destroyed by a fire in 1828. All that remains are the walls that fortified this palace, with their sturdy doors, studded with spikes for added protection. Nearby is a street where the Peshwas unleashed elephants to trample dissidents to death.

ii) AGAKHAN’S PALACE – This is a famous landmark in Pune city. Agakhan Palace is the place where Mahatma Gandhi, Karturba Gandhi and Mahadeobhai Desai were imprisoned during the “Quit India Movement” in 1942. Marble memorials were put later on in the memory of Kasturba and Mahadeobahi, both of them breathed their last in this place.

iii) LAL MAHAL – In Pune, Dadaji built a palace ‘Lal Mahal’, for Shivaji and his mother Jijabai. At the age of sixteen (1643 A.D.) Formerly Synagogue, Now it is newly Re- constructed by Pune Muncipal Corporation. It is a red brick structure standing very prominently in the heart of the city. There is a statue of “Jijamata ” ( Shree Shivaji’s Mother ) and there is garden also for small kids to spend their evenings.This place is just next to Shaniwarwada

iv) KELKAR’S MUSEUM – It is a collection of Mughal and Peshwa period antiques which include paintings, instruments, lamps & different types of nut crackers.

v) SCINDIA’S CHATRI – The building built in the memory of Mahadji Scindia who was great Maratha noble man. It is about 4kms away from Pune camp. The carving and beauty of the temple is worth a look.

vi) VISHRAM BAUG WADA – 300 years back Bajirao Peshwas ( II ) built this place. The carved woodwork of the balcony which surrounds the entrance of this building is the example of the fine work of ancient Maratha rulers. After Peshwas this place was used as a jail. Pune Municipal Corporation is soon changing this place as museum. It is a 3 floor building in the heart of the city on Bajirao road, next to laxmi road the huge market for clothing.

5.2] Historical Places in the District –
Forts Shivneri , Chakan, Rajmachi , Lohagad ,Sinhagad or Kondhana, Rajgad, Torna or Prachandagad , Purandar and Vajrangad (Rudramal)

6] Religious places – Famous Temples
i) Alandi – A holy place of Sant Dyaneshwar
ii) Dehu – Located about 30 km from Pune , a holy place of Sant Tukaram
iii) Jejuri – A famous place where Lord Khandoba temple exists.
iv) Bhimashankar – About 120 km from pune.One of the 12 Jyotirlings.(Shivlings)
v) Ashtavinayak – Five out of eight famous worship places (commonly known as Ashtavinayak Ganapatis) of Lord Ganesha are present in the district at Theur, Ranjangaon, Morgaon, Ozar and Lenyadri.

7] Other places –
1. Pune university, oxford of the east, cultural capital
2. National Defence Academy (NDA) – One of the premier academy related to recruitment and training of defence services Personnel.
3. Fergusson College – One of the oldest colleges in the country.

8.1] Soil

Soil TypeLocation
Moderately deep, well drained, strongly calcareous, fine soil on gently sloping plains and valleys with moderate erosionNarrow stretches are spread in Ambegaon, Khed, Maval, Mulshi, Velha, Bhor, Purandar, Baramati, Indapur talukas along the river banks.
Slightly deep, well drained, fine, calcareous soil on very gently sloping lands with measas and buttes with moderate erosion.Except Maval and Mulshi taulka remaining all taulka have this soil cover.
Very deep, well drained, loamy soils on gently sloping narrow valleys with moderate erosionPathes are spread in taulka Mulshi, Bhor, Velha.
Shallow well drained clayey soil on gently sloping lands with measas and buttes with moderate erosion and slight stoniness.Major portion of District is covered by this type of soil.. This includes major portion of talukas Maval, Khed, Mulshi , Velha, Bhor, Purandar, Haveli and Daund.
Shallow well drained, clayey soil on gently sloping lands with moderate erosion.Stretches are spread in taulka Ambegaon , Junnar, Maval, Shirur, Haveli, Purandar, Baramati, Daund, Khed and Indapur

Pune District presents a monotonously uniform, flat-topped skyline. This topography of the District is the outcome of its geological structure. The entire district consists of Basaltic rock formation called as ‘Deccan trap’. Variations in their composition and structure have resulted in massive, well-jointed steel-grey cliff with structural benches of vesicular amygdaloid lava and ash layers, all of which contribute to the pyramidal -shaped hills and crest-level plateaux or mesas. Earth sculpturing under the tropical climate completed the panorama-sharply defining the landform features in the semi-arid conditions, and rounding the hilltops under wetter condition.

In the district, fractured jointed and vesicular type of basaltic formation acts as aquifer. Groundwater is the major source for drinking water and irrigation purposes. In some of the area near the major rivers, surface water is used for irrigation. To study the groundwater conditions and aquifer performance, the district area is divided into 71 watersheds in which 192 observation wells and 71 piezometers are fixed.

10] G.S.D.A’s role in the district
         I. Systematic Hydrogeological surveys by examining all the existing dugwells and borewells to study the groundwater conditions in the district.
         II. Determining the site suitability for drinking water as well as irrigation source
         III. Implementation of different conventional and unconventional measures for sustainability of dugwells and recharging the aquifer.
         IV. Carrying out watershed wise groundwater assessment.
         V. Research studies for groundwater enhancement and groundwater regimes
         VI. Village wise groundwater management and water audit.

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